What is a Neurodevelopmental disorder? Know about some common neurodevelopmental disorders…

a woman and a young girl using a tablet

Neurodevelopmental disorders are a group of conditions that onset in the developmental period of a child.

It is mainly characterized by developmental deficits which produce impairments in cognition, personal, social, academic, and daily living functions.

Important to know:

  • The range of developmental deficits varies from particular limitations of learning or control of executive functions to global impairments of social skills and intelligence.
  • Neurodevelopmental disorders frequently co-occur; for example, children with autism spectrum disorder(ASD) often have symptoms of ADHD or Intellectual disability(ID), and individuals with ADHD have learning disorders.
  • The onset starts early in childhood and may remain for a lifelong

Let’s learn about common neurodevelopmental disorders…

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

siblings standing next to each other beside their parents
Photo by RDNE Stock project on Pexels.com

It is characterized by deficits in social communication and interaction, including social reciprocity, nonverbal communicative behaviors, and skills in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships.

In addition to these, it is also diagnosed with the presence of restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities.

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Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

It is characterized by impairing levels of inattention, disorganization, and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. Inability to stay on task, not listening to anything, losing materials, overactivity, fidgeting, inability to stay seated, intruding into other people’s activities, etc.

Intellectual Developmental Disorder (IDD)

It is characterized by deficits in general mental abilities like reasoning, problem-solving, planning, abstract thinking, judgment, academic learning, etc.

It is diagnosed when an individual fails to meet expected developmental milestones in several areas of intellectual functioning.

Communication Disorders

It is characterized by deficits in the development and use of language, speech, and social communication.

Repetitive sounds or syllables, prolongation of consonants or vowel sounds, broken words, blocking, and words produced with an excess of physical tension are also signs of communication disorder.

Neurodevelopmental Motor Disorders

It is characterized by deficits in the acquisition and execution of coordinated motor skills, clumsiness, slowness or inaccuracy of performance in motor skills, repetitive and purposeless motor behaviors like hand flapping, body rocking, head banging, self-biting or hitting, etc.

Specific Learning Disorder

It is characterized by deficits in an individual’s ability to perceive or process information efficiently and accurately.

It may first manifest during the years of formal schooling and is characterized by impairing difficulties with learning foundational academic skills in reading, writing, and/or math.

Final Thought

There is no specific reason for neurodevelopmental disorders.

Multiple factors are behind it. So, worrying about why and how it happened may not give any solution rather early intervention could enhance its consequences.

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